Majors Section Samples (Included In Volumes I & II)

Major Inventors/Thinkers 19th c 1

Inventor/Thinker Country Invention/Theory…

1. Gregor M_______ A_______ G___________

1. Austrian mo___ who studied p____ and realized that there is a

patt____ to the way that certain trai___ are inher_________.

  1. Mendel discovered that some gen____ are domi______ while others

are recess______.

2. Louis P_________ F_______ G____ Theory

1. French chemist who discovered that dis_______ was caused by

microscopic organisms called bac_______.

2. Pasteur also realized that h_____ killed the bact_______.

3. Pasteurization-process that kills germs in liq_____ (milk…).

4. Developed vacc_____ for rab_____ and anthrax.

3.Joseph L________ B_______ Cl____ it up

1. English surgeon who, after reading about Pasteur’s work,

realized that ger____ might explain why ha____ of surgical

patients died of inf__________.

2. Ordered surgery rooms to be kept spotlessly cl_____, and wounds

to be was______ in antiseptics, or germ-ki_______ liquids.

4. Charles D_______ B_______ Theory of E_________

1. English naturalist who, after traveling around the world on the

H.M.S. Beagle, theorized that over many generations species

ch_____ to ad_____ to their environment.

2. Survival of the Fittest-Those who ad_____ to their environment

sur______. Those who don’t d____.

3. This theory of evolution theorizes that humans have, over

millions of years, evo_______ from a_____.

4. Aroused great controversy because this disagreed with the

literal interpret_________ of the Book of G________ in the B_______.

5. Henry F_____ A_______ Ass_______ L___

1. American mech______ who mass-prod_______ the first cars (the

Mod____ T) using an ass_________ line.

2. Used innov___________ policies such as a $5 daily minimum w_____

and a 5 d_____ work week.

3. Ford was politically active and a pac_______ (he opposed U.S.

involvement in both WWI & WWII.) He was also an anti-Sem______.

6. Thomas E_______ A________ Li___ Bu__, Ph_______

1. American in_________ who patented over 1,000 inventions,

including the l_____ b____, the pho________, and motion p________.

  1. In 1869, Edi______ invented the automatic vo_____ recorder and

the improved sto____ ticker.

  1. In 1889, he founded the Edison Light Co., which later became

Gen_______ El________.

7. The W______ B_______ A________ Ai_________

1. American bicycle mec________ who built the first pow________

gl______ in 1903. At first, the longest flight was 59 s_______.

2. By 1905, they could f___ for 39 m__________.

3. In 1908, the U.S. Ar____ had them make the first mi_________

plane which could fly for an h_____ at 40 m.p.h. with a pi_____

and a pass_________.

8. Sigmund F______ Au______ U_____________

1. Austrian physician/psychologist who believed that the unconsc______ mind

dri_____ how people a____ and thi_____. Unconscious forces such

as suppressed me________, des______, and impu______ shape


2. Psychoanalysis-dealing with peoples’ pro_______ by exploring

their pa_____, by trying to find out what past exp__________

might be fueling present-day pr__________.

3. Freud believed that our d________ are our unconscious trying to

comm__________ with our conscious minds through stories and symbols.

9. John Da_______ B________ A______ Theory

1. English chemist who was the first in modern times to propose

the existence of a________.

2. Dalton showed that ele_______ contain only one kind of a______,

and he produced the first list of atomic wei_______.

3. Dalton was also the first scientist to note and rec_____ color

bl__________, for he was himself color bl_____.

10. Dmitri Mendel______ R_______ Pe_______ Table

1. Russian chemist who first org_________ all of the known

ele_______ in order of wei____, from lig_______ to heav_______.

2. Mendeleev’s Periodic L____ states that the chemical prop_________

of the elements depend on their at________ weights.

11. Marie and Pierre C______ Fr_____/Po_____ Rad________

1. Husb_____ and wi___ (Polish) team who disc___________ two

other elem______-radium and polonium.

2. These elements were found in a mineral called pitchbl_______ .

that released a powerful form of en______.

3. This energy was called radi___________.

4. Both won a Nob_____ Prize.

12. Alexander Graham B_____ A_______ Te_________

1. Scott____-born U.S. scientist and in_________ of the tel_________. He was also a teacher of deaf people.

2. Bell also worked on converting seaw_______ to drin______ water, on air-condi__________, and on sheep-


Major Psychologists

1.Sigmund Fr____ Aus____ Born: 1856 Died: 1939

Quant______ Data (that which c__ me mea_____) and Qualitative Data (that which c____ be mea______)

Approach: Psychoanaly____

Neurologist (Study of the bra___, nerves)Psychiatrist (study of me_____ illness)

  1. When ideas, memories, or impulses, are too overw_________ or inappropriate for the consc_____ mind to withstand, they are repr_______ and stor____ in the unconsc______ alongside our instinctual dri_____, where they are not accessible by imme_______ consciousness. The unconscious silently dir_____ the tho______ and beh_______ of the individual. The difference between our unconscious and conscious thoughts creates psychic te_______ that can only be released when repr_______ memories are allowed into consciousness through psycho_________.

  1. Many forms of mental illness (irrational fe_____, anxi______, hysteria, imagined paralyses and pa_____, and certain types of paranoia) were the result of trau________ experiences that had occurred in the patient’s p_____ and were now hi________ away from consciousness. They can be released, brought into consciousness, through psycho___________.

  1. “The mi____ is like an ice______; it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water”

—Sigmund Freud

  1. Our psyche, according to Fr____, resembles an ic______, with the area of primitive dr____, the i__, lying hid____ within the unconscious. The e___ deals with conscious thoughts and regulates both the id and the super____--our critical, judging voice. DRAW FREUD’S ICEBERG HERE

  1. If we have thoughts we can’t handle (abuse, witnessing an accident, de_____, desires we deem unac____________, we rep______ them; they’re pushed into the unconscious. But they never go a_____. They mani_______ as unconscious be_________. Through psycho____________--telling the story, rem__________ it, bringing it into consciousness,--we can overcome it, ac_______ it, let it go.

  1. The Id, the Ego, and the Superego

  2. The Id (formed of prim_______ impu_____) obeys the Pleasure Princ___, which

says that every wishful imp________ must be immediately grat_______; it wants everything n____.

  1. The E___, however, recognizes the Reality Princ____, which says we can’t have

everything we de_____, but must take account of the world we live in. The e___ negotiates with the i___, trying to find reason_______ ways to help it get what it wa_____, without resulting in damage or other consequences.

  1. The Sup_________--The Ego is controlled by the Superego—the internalized

voice of par______ and society’s mo______ codes. The Superego is a jud_______force, and the source of our conscience, gu______, and sha______.

  1. Fr______ said that emotional suf________ is the result of unconscious conf______. Through working through these conflicts, he sought to fr____ the patient from rep__________ memories and so alleviate their mental pa____. A psychoa_________, through perhaps many hour+ sessions, talks a patient through the process. This may takes years. The goal is to bring all the repressed memories into consciousness, to become aw_____ of them, to pro_______ them, and to then be able to deal and/or let them go.

  1. Freud says that our d_______ are our unconscious speaking to us in symbols or co_____. He says that buildings and structures have coded meanings in dreams; stair wells, mine shafts, loc_____ doors, or a small building in a narrow recess all represent repressed se______ feelings.

  1. A Freudian sl____ is a verbal er_____, or “slip of the tongue,” and it is said to rev_____ a repressed bel_____, thou_____, or emo______. It is an involuntary substitution of one wo____ for another that sounds similar but inadvertently reveals something the person really feels.

*Synthesized from The Psychology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained, New York: DK Publishing, 2012